Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Friday, March 6, 2020
Ancient Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro is what generations of besotted archaeologists have named a 10.8 centimeter (4.25 inch) tall copper-bronze statuette found in the ruins of Mohenjo Daro. That city is one of the most important sites of the Indus Civilization, or more accurately, the Harappan Civilization (2600-1900 BC) of Pakistan and northwestern India. The Dancing Girl figurine was sculpted using the lost wax (cire perdue) process, which involves making a mold and pouring molten metal into it. Made about 2500 BC, the statuette was found in the remains of a small house in the southwestern quarter of Mohenjo Daro by Indian archaeologist D. R. Sahni [1879-1939] during his 1926-1927 field season at the site. The Dancing Girl Figurine The figurine is a naturalistic free-standing sculpture of a nude woman, with small breasts, narrow hips, long legs and arms, and a short torso; her genitals are explicit. She wears a stack of 25 bangles on her left arm. She has very long legs and arms compared to her torso; her head is tilted slightly backward and her left leg is bent at the knee. On her right arm are four bangles, two at the wrist, two above the elbow; that arm is bent at the elbow, with her hand on her hip. She wears a necklace with three large pendants, and her hair is in a loose bun, twisted in a spiral fashion and pinned in place at the back of her head. Some scholars suggest that the Dancing Girl statuette is a portrait of a real woman. Individuality of the Dancing Girl Although there have been literally thousands of figurines recovered from Harappan sites, including over 2,500 at Harappa alone, the vast majority of figurines are terracotta, made from fired clay. Only a handful of Harappan figurines are carved from stone (such as the famous priest-king figure) or, like the dancing lady, of lost-wax copper bronze. Figurines are an elaborate class of representational artifact found in many ancient and modern human societies. Human and animal figurines can give insight into concepts of sex, gender, sexuality and other aspects of social identity. That insight is important for us today because many ancient societies left no decipherable written language. Although the Harappans had a written language, no modern scholar has been able to decipher the Indus Script to date. Metallurgy and the Indus Civilization A recent survey of the use of copper-based metals used in Indus civilization sites (Hoffman and Miller 2014) found that most of the classic Harappan aged objects made of copper-bronze are vessels (jars, pots, bowls, dishes, pans, scale pans) formed from sheet copper; tools (blades from sheet copper; chisels, pointed tools, axes and adzes) manufactured by casting; and ornaments (bangles, rings, beads, and decorative-headed pins) by casting. Hoffman and Miller found that copper mirrors, figurines, tablets, and tokens are relatively rare compared to these other artifact types. There are many more stone and ceramic tablets than those made of copper-based bronze. The Harappans made their bronze artifacts using a variety of blends, alloys of copper with tin and arsenic, and varying lesser amounts of zinc, lead, sulfur, iron, and nickel. Adding zinc to copper makes an object brass rather than bronze, and some of the earliest brasses on our planet were created by the Harappans. Researchers Park and Shinde (2014) suggest that the variety of blends used in different products was the result of fabrication requirements and the fact that pre-alloyed and pure copper was traded into the Harappan cities rather than produced there. The lost wax method used by Harappan metallurgists involved first carving the object out of wax, then covering it in wet clay. Once the clay was dried, holes were bored into the mold and the mold was heated, melting the wax. The empty mold was then filled with a melted mixture of copper and tin. After that cooled, the mold was broken, revealing the copper-bronze object. Sex and the Dancing Girl Most of the images of women from Harappan-period sites are from hand-modeled terracotta, and they are primarily curvaceous mother goddesses. Many of them have explicit sexual organs and navels, heavy breasts and broad hips; most wear a fan-shaped headdress. Male figurines appear later than the female ones, with early male motifs represented by male animals- bulls, elephants, unicorns- with explicit genitals. The dancing girl is unusual in that although her genitals are explicit she isnt particularly voluptuous- and she is not hand-modeled, she was created using a mold. American archaeologist Sharri Clark suggests that the process of making hand-modeled terracotta images was ritually or symbolically meaningful to the maker, that the manufacturing of the figurines was as important or perhaps more important than the figurine itself. It is possible, then, that the manufacturing technique chosen by the maker of the Dancing Girl had some specific meaning that we dont have access to. Possible African Origins The ethnicity of the woman depicted in the figure has been a somewhat controversial subject over the years since the figurine was discovered. Several scholars such as ECL During Casper have suggested that the lady looks African. Recent evidence for Bronze Age trade contact with Africa has been found at Chanhu-Dara, another Harappan Bronze Age site, in the form of pearl millet, which was domesticated in Africa about 5,000 years ago. There is also at least one burial of an African woman at Chanhu-Dara, and it is not impossible that the Dancing Girl was a portrait of a woman from Africa. However, the figurines hairdressing is a style worn by Indian women today and in the past, and her armful of bangles is similar to a style worn by contemporary Kutchi Rabari tribal women. British Archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, one of many scholars besotted by the statuette, recognized her as a woman from the Baluchi region. Sources Clark SR. 2003. Representing the Indus Body: Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and the Anthropomorphic Terracotta Figurines from Harappa. Asian Perspectives 42(2):304-328. Clark SR. 2009. Material Matters: Representation and Materiality of the Harappan Body. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16:231Ã¢â¬â261. Craddock PT. 2015. The metal casting traditions of South Asia: Continuity and innovation. Indian Journal of History of Science 50(1):55-82. During Caspers ECL. 1987. Was the dancing girl from Mohenjo-daro a Nubian? Annali, Instituto Oriental di Napoli 47(1):99-105. Hoffman BC, and Miller HM-L. 2014. Production and Consumption of Copper-Base Metals in the Indus Civilization. In: Roberts BW, and Thornton CP, editors. Archaeometallurgy in Global Perspective: Methods and Syntheses. New York, NY: Springer New York. p 697-727. Kennedy KAR, and Possehl GL. 2012. Were There Commercial Communications between Prehistoric Harappans and African Populations? Advances in Anthropology 2(4):169-180. Park J-S, and Shinde V. 2014. Characterization and comparison of the copper-base metallurgy of the Harappan sites at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India. Journal of Archaeological Science 50:126-138. Possehl GL. 2002. The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, California: Altamira Press. Sharma M, Gupta I, and Jha PN. 2016. From Caves to Miniatures: Portrayal of Woman in Early Indian Paintings. Chitrolekha International Magazine on Art and Design 6(1):22-42. Shinde V, and Willis RJ. 2014. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilisation. Ancient Asia 5(1):1-10. Sinopoli CM. 2006. Gender and archaeology in south and southwest Asia. In: Milledge Nelson S, editor. Handbook of Gender in Archaeology. Lanham, Maryland: Altamira Press. p 667-690. Srinivasan S. 2016. Metallurgy of zinc, high-tin bronze and gold in Indian antiquity: Methodological aspects. Indian Journal of History of Science 51(1):22-32.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Group Analysis - Essay Example 2. I (Rose) wrote the literature review, explained the theoretical and historic perspectives about the problem, determined gaps in the existing body of literature and reiterated the purpose of study. 3. Yusuf wrote the methodology section along with the research design and the various procedures that were employed for collecting the data. He also characterized the subjects, did sample designing, described the instrumentation used and wrote the procedures of data analysis. 4. Anita, the fourth member of our team drew the conclusions of the research, presented factual information, and discussed the statistical and practical significance of research with the help of charts and tables. 5. Colleen, the fifth member of our team wrote the discussion section. In this section, Colleen summarized the conclusions and offered explanation for the unexpected findings of the research. She also stated the researchÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations and suggested pattern for further research in the very subject. 6 . Jean edited the whole report and made it sound like it was all the product of one mind. The project we completed can be divided into four basic phases, namely brainstorming, review of primary and secondary sources, data collection and analysis, and report writing. The first phase was the most critical one, though it consumed the least time. When a team has to execute a project, the most important thing is to have things done with mutual consensus. We conducted a skill demonstration session in the very first meeting in which each one of us told what he/she felt comfortable with doing in the project. This was followed by a voting session. Kayla and Anita both were willing to complete the conclusion section of the paper, but Anita won more votes than Kayla, so Kayla had to write the introductory portion instead. The tasks discussed in the list above were assigned to the respective team members in the very session. Once everybody was clear about what he/she would be doing in the proje ct, chances of conflicts were minimized. In the brainstorming phase, everyone thought how he/she would go about doing his/her part of the work. Then we conducted literature review to identify gaps in the literature and see how people have done things in the past. Literature review was followed by the data collection and analysis phase. This was the most time consuming and tiresome part of the job. Going out in the field and making others spare some time and fill the surveys for matter, they have no concern with is a tough job! Finally, the report writing phase came. Although it was no less tiresome than the data collection and analysis phase, yet things were quite manageable. We were able to adjust the report writing into our routinely activities. We finished the work one day before the deadline and partied all day long to celebrate the completion of task. In my personal opinion, group process is an excellent way of doing a project because it offers several advantages as compared to individual work. First, the tension of work is released as friends get together all the time for work. Normally, in an individual setting, one tends to waste time as there often is no impulse for speeding up. In a group process, when two or three friends sit together and work, the fourth and fifth naturally feel obliged to join them in the work. This ensures that everyone participates in the work and the work is completed sooner. Secondly, team mates benefit from one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
What is virtue and what helps promote a virtuous life - Essay Example When principled love is exercised, there is no law that is against love, it encompasses all goodness and virtues. The Apostle Paul described principled love with the following words in the Holy Scriptures at 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 which says: Love is long-suffering and kind. Love is not jealous, it does not brag, does not get puffed up, does not behave indecently, does not look for its own interests, and does not become provoked. It does not keep account of the injury. It does not rejoice over unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things. Long-suffering or patience no doubt is a virtue worth emulating. Economic hardship and the daily stress of life can easily make one impatient and loose self-control causing tensions in relationships within the family, in workplaces, and in the community. But with the exercise of love, one is willing to suffer the tensions, weaknesses, and show kindness despite unfavora ble circumstances. There is humility in love. A truly humble person is not contentious and does not seek to compete to gain favor, honor, and praise from onlookers. One does not step on the rights of others just to be on the pedestal but recognizes personal limitations. In this highly competitive world, exercising true humility is a real challenge but with love, pride is conquered. Love is willing to forgive trespasses, conscious of the fact that every now and then humans err as a result of sinful tendencies. Love readily forgives and without harboring pain and revenge. This is a virtue that fosters peace and harmonious relationship. Love is truthful, faithful, loyal and prudent. When there is principled love, there is no deception, infidelity, and indecency. Love works for what is good towards all and is willing to suffer pain and inconvenience to allow some degree of comfort and joy to those who are in greater distress. God is love (1 John 4:8). Because love is the personification of God, and God is all goodness, then love encompasses all goodness. It is the source of all virtues. In an imperfect world, it is not always easy to exercise love and to live a virtuous life. Aside from imperfection, there is the pressure of everyday living and the influence of the people around. It is during trials that a virtue is magnified. In times of dire need, and extreme poverty it is a challenge to exercise love of neighbor through honesty. It requires strength and courage to return a wallet full of money when one badly needs money to buy food for the family or buy medicines for a sick loved one. Likewise it is extremely challenging to endure injustice when the suffering has become unbearable to the point of death. It is challenge to live a virtuous life when most of the people are no longer virtuous and yet they are living better lives and enjoying unreasonable profit of corruption and greed. Furthermore it is a real challenge to live a virtuous life, when one is raised i n a family whose culture is far from being virtuous. Love must be more overwhelming to conquer these challenges and live the excelling way of living a virtuous life. Elements in Society that Promotes a Virtuous Life To learn the ways of love is to learn the virtues to live. Love as the embodiment of virtues must be inculcated in the heart and mind right
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Career Of Katherine Dunham Theatre Essay Katherine Dunham modern dancer and choreographer, born in Glen Ellyn, Illinois United States of America, she were completed her study at the Chicago University and went on to earn a higher degree in anthropology. According to Darlene, (2006) turn to the side of dance she began her first school in Chicago in 1931, when she becoming dance director for the works progress administrations project of Chicago theatre. A flashy performer, she was best known for her choreography in such musicals as Cabin in the sky 1940, and for action pictures, notably Stormy Weather 1943. According to Barbara, (2000) Dunham studied abut the dance forms in the Caribbean, especially Haiti where she lived for many years, and is credited with bringing Caribbean and African determines to a European dominated dance world. Her company traveled globally in the 1940s-60s, and she consistently denied performing at segregated venues. According to Joyce, (2002) in 1967 she founded the Performing Arts Training Center fo r inter-city younger in East St Louis, IL, and in 1992 went on a 47-day appetite strike to protestation in resistance to the American banishment of Haitian refugees. Her honours incorporated the Presidential Medal of the Arts (1989) and the Albert Schweitzer Prize. Introduction Dunham is perhaps most well known, however, for her unique blending of anthropology and dance. According to Jessie, (2002) Dunham challenged mainstream academic circles by using her anthropology not only for articles and books, but also as a catalyst for her own artistic dance productions, which heavily drew on the dance forms and cultural rituals she witnessed and documented through total immersion in the cultures she observed. Dunham traveled the world with these productions, bringing African culture, through movements, rhythms and sounds, to the worlds consciousness. This hybrid of anthropology and dance later morphed into what is today known as the Dunham technique, a special type of dance training utilizing movements witnessed in her field work. According to Darlene, (2006) Dunham technique is today studied and practiced around the world. After Dunham retired from dancing, she moved to East St. Louis, a blighted, predominantly African-American city which she hoped to revitalize through establishing a vibrant cultural center. Dunham established there an interactive museum and a dance institute (which continues to teach her technique to students from around the world). Research objectives Dunham desired to experiences this academy the base of enough larger cultural institution that world bring the East St. Louis community with each other. Just as surely as Haiti is overcome through the character of vaudun the island possessed African American Katherine Dunham when she first went there in the year of 1936 for the purpose of study dance and ritual. According to Joyce, (2002) in her book, Dunham discloses how her anthropological research, her work in dance, and her fascination for the people and cults of Haiti worked their trance, catapulting her into experiences that she was often lucky to have had. According to Richard and Joe, (2008) Dunham explain how the island came to be possessed by the deities of voodoo and other African religions, as well as by the deep class distributions, particularly within mulattos and blacks, and the political strife remain enough in evidence at present. Full of flare and suspense, Island Possessed is also a pioneering work in the anthropol ogy of dance and a captivating document on Haitian beliefs and politics. Discussion The book Island Possessed,Ã details Ms. Dunhams experiences and sentiments of her adopted homeland, from the year 1936 to the late 1960s, and even describes her final initiation into the Vaudoun (Voodoo) religion of the half-island. According to Patrick, (2006) she speaks Haitian Creole fluently, she has owned a beautiful 18th century Haitian estate, Habitation LeClerc for decades, and, in the early 1990s, she put her life on the line and went on an extended hunger strike, when President Aristide was overthrown and forced to leave the country. According to Jane, (2007) Ms. Dunham also adopted a young girl from the French West Indies island of Martinique, back in the 1950s, as further demonstration of her love and commitment to the Diaspora. Introduced to Theater One of those baby-sitters, Clara Dunham, had come to Chicago with her daughter, Irene, hoping to break into show business. They and other amateur performers began rehearsing a musical/theatrical program in the basement of their apartment building, and Dunham would watch. Although the program wasnt a success, it provided Dunham with her first taste of show business. According to Darlene, (2006) Dunham and her brother were very fond of their Aunt Lulu. However, because she was experiencing financial difficulties, a judge granted temporary custody of the children to their half-sister Fanny June Weir, and ordered that the children be returned to their father as soon as he could prove that he could take care of them. Katherine Dunham Katherine Dunham was born June 22, 1909, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, in DuPage County, and died May 21, 2006 in New York City. Although one of the most important artists (and scholars) of her time, she remains largely unknown outside Dance and African-American studies. According to Darlene, (2006) Sara E. Johnson supposed that the breadth of Dunhams accomplishments is perhaps one explanation for the underappreciation of her work. Dunham worked so hard on so many different things that she remains hard to classify. She almost single-handedly created a genuine artistic and cultural appreciation for the unique aspects of African dance, especially as manifested in African diaspora cultures. According to Joyce, (2002) Dunham was also a serious anthropologist that began her career with ground-breaking studies carried out in Jamaica and Haiti as a student at the University of Chicago. Finally, she was a tireless advocate, who led to a brief arrest during race riots in East St. Louis and a 47 da y hunger-strike carried out at the age of 82 against US discrimination against Haitian refugees. Dunhams Artistic Academic Background This process was, in fact, a remaking of memory through performance. As Hamera reinforces, the practice of he social work of aesthetics is especially communal and corporeal, and where corporeality and sociality are remade as surely as formal event is produced. According to Jessie, (2002) in this sense, Afro-Caribbean culture and sociality voyaged across the Atlantic to the rest of the Americas, Europe, and Asian-wherever the Katherine Dunham Dance Company performed. According to Ruth, (2009) Dunhams Research-to-Performance Method Armed with these researched dances of the black Atlantic and an understanding of their Functional social contexts, Dunhams dance theater became a prime laboratory where Afro- Caribbean cultures could migrate through the performance of her choreography and through the personalities of her individual dancers in the act of performing the Dunham oeuvre. Uncovering Danced Memory Katherine Dunhams earliest written ethnography provides ample proof of her prescience as a fieldworker and scholar in uncovering an ancient African dance surviving in the Caribbean on the island of Jamaica. According to Joyce, (2002) in her fieldwork represented in Journey to Accompong, she utilized a functionalist theoretical frame by recording the various social institutions in relationship to each other in the village of Accompong. Kinship, ownership patterns, religion, work group organizations, clothing and material culture, age, gender (unusual for her time), and social interaction were the sequential subject matters of her chapters. Yet, as she reveals, she had come there to study and take part in the dances. According to Naima, (2001) Accompong was and is one of the maroon villages in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica, having been established by run-a-away slaves from the Spanish as early as 1650 and later the English rulers in the 1690s of these maroons the Coromantees, an Akan g roup from the West African Gold Coast made up the largest ethnic group. They fought many battles with the British and were finally given their independence by England in a treaty signed in 1738. Thus, as a nation within a nation, the maroons of the cockpit region of the Blue Mountains had sufficiently maintained their ways of life for two centuries by the time that Katherine Dunham had arrived to study their dances and ways of life. Enslavement and colonialism had taken its toll even among those so long separated from European influence. But Dunham was determined to unearth a vital expressive part of their successful victory and independence against the British. She would soon discover this same phenomenon among the petwo dances among the Vodou practitioners in Haiti against their French captors. Through her intense engagement of the participatory insider role with the dancing maroons, she gained historical insights that were embedded within the dancing act itself: According to Richard and Joe, (2008) The war dances are danced by men and women. Their songs are in lusty Koromantee, and from somewhere a woman has procured a rattle and shakes this in accompaniment to Ba Weeyums. Some of the men wave sticks in the air, and the women tear off their handkerchiefs and wave them on high as they dance. According to Patrick, (2006) few of these turns, and we are separated in a melee of leaping, shouting warriors; a moment later we are bush fighting, crouching down and advancing in line to attack an imaginary enemy with many feints, swerves and much pantomime. At one stage of the dance Miss May and I are face to face, she no longer is a duppy, but a maroon woman of old days, working the men up to a pitch where they will descend into the cockpit and exterminate one of his majestys red-coated platoons. Afro -Jamaican dances, such as the Coromantee war dance, represent in a direct way the concept of dance itself as having rhetorical voice. As Judith Hamera explains, performance, including dance, is enmeshed in language, in reading, writing, rhetoric, and in voice. Dunham implicitly understood the movement rhetoric of the Coromantee dance and the relationship between its performance and the writing of her ethnographic experience in Jamaica. According to Richard and Joe, (2008) Dunhams willingness to engage the maroon dances on the cultures own terms, treating dance as another social system, allowed her a unique view into the role of the nearly forgotten Koromantee dance as a part of the maroons hard won battle for independence from the British. According to Joyce, (2002) this is a prime example of dances unique rhetorical voice-what dance anthropologist Yvonne Daniel calls embodied knowledge: Community members are in an open classroom with dance and music behavior. These sorts of knowledges are on display as community instruction for social cohesion and cosmic balance, Participants learn from observation, witnessing, modeling and active participation. According to Ira and Faye, (2009) Dunhams implicit understanding of this embodied knowledge established her philosophical foundation that would serve her use of dance and the body, according to Clark, as a repository of memory. Moreover, she trusted her choreographic acumen to represent her understanding of her research, which in the Jamaican case, had been unearthed and cajoled from the continuing, yet reluctant, milieux de mÃ ©moire lingering in Accompong. According to Richard and Joe, (2008) in her active participation, Dunham was, thus, one of the first to demonstrate the continuity of specific West African dances that served enslaved Africans with similar purposes in the colonial New World. It is significant that this discovery was cognized in the act of dancing, through corporeal immersion in the communal dances of the people. We realize from todays contemporary scholarship the importance of Dunhams early trans-Atlantic performance connections. According to Joyce, (2002) Africanist anthropologist Margaret Drewal revealed in the 1990s that African-based performance. Primary site for the production of knowledge, where philosophy is enacted, and where multiple and often simultaneous discourses are employed. As I have said elsewhere, dance, for African peoples, whether on the continent or in the diaspora, is a means of enacting immediate social context, history, and indeed philosophical worldview. Dunham understood these multiple strat egies embedded within Africanist performance, such as in her treasured Koromantee war dance. Honouring Katherine Dunham as the progenitor of African American dance would be misleading and disrespect the legacy of other African Americans who contributed their own particular ways of knowing movement. According to Jane, (2007) it introduced Bannerman to Pearl Primus. Both Dunham and Primus were pioneering giants in the American dance pantheon with different ways of making dance. Since the programme was ultimately going to comment on the dance practices of African Americans, these two pioneers had to be discussed. According to Ruth, (2009) collecting life stories and reflections on movement and descriptions of individual interactions with works of Dunham and Primus would speak of the diversity that is American dance making than the celebration of any one artist. Dunhams Staged Caribbean Dances of the Black Atlantic Dunham perceived her form of dance-theater as intercultural communication. For example, when international audiences viewed her 1948 ballet Naningo, she was allowing non-Cubans to interact with one of the ritualized ways in which male Afro-Cubans had retained their cosmological secret rituals perpetuated from the Ejagham people of todays Cross-River area of Nigeria. According to Jessie, (2002) Naningo, as an all-male ballet was a fusion of balletic athleticism, Dunham technique (particularly rhythmic torso isolations and the use of the pelvis as the source for extending the legs), and a recontextualization of the movements of the Cuban male secret society called Abakua. Through program notes, the exuberant virtuosity of the dance, and the cryptic Abakua symbolic movements, she transported European audiences to secret enclaves in Cuba that only initiated Abakua members could have previously viewed. She also cast one of her Cuban dancers in the role of a traditional Abakua figure that drums upstage center throughout the entire ballet, as an authentic gaze watching over her appropriated fusion style. According to Barbara, (2000) as the curtain closes, after all the Dunham technique dancers have left, the ballet ends with that figure moving across the stage in enigmatic movement phrases representative of the symbolic language of the Abakua Cuban male society. Secret society rituals, restaged in a secular theatrical setting is not a substitute for being there, but it does transmit an underlying social strategy of male survivors of the Atlantic slave trade, as well as a vision of sacred danced symbolism in that survival strategy. According to Ruth, (2009) Dunham company performed Naningo for people internationally who had no idea that the Abakua society even existed. In the adept hands of knowledgeable researchers like Katherine Dunham, performance becomes another mode of bridging t he cultural gaps that make cross-cultural understanding such a difficult goal to reach. Conclusion In conclusion, life of the Dunham and career are miraculous, and although she was not alone, Dunham is perhaps the best known and most influential pioneer of black dance. She wanted to make a point that African-American and African-Caribbean styles are related and powerful components of dance in America. Performed imagined migration is underpinned by her specific artistic intent and projected audience reception. There are many ways to present dance on radio but a visual image is preferable if the discussion concerns elements of a form. The programme makers can then include descriptions of how the shaping of arms and legs display rhythm or portray expression and how contours of the torso fulfill the dancers intended personification. Radio though is an excellent tool to stir the minds eye especially if the words relate life stories and movement experiences in a descriptive way. Bannerman contacted me to research and be the presenter for the 45-minute programme You Dance Because You Hav e To aired on 21 September 2003. Interested in emerging American dance forms producer, Richard Bannerman submitted a proposal to BBC Radio 3 to make a documentary on Katherine Dunham. Bannerman knew Radio 3 wanted to explore new territories in dance and Katherine Dunhams story was relatively unknown in Britain. Bannerman also found the repertory of The Alvin Ailey Dance Company inspiring and speculated that Katherine Dunhams life would be a good starting point to discuss in a general way, the dance practices of African Americans. In our preliminary meeting it became clear to me that our programme had to respect the diversity of African American practices.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The best estimate for 2006 are shown in the projections for Alliance Concrete. The company is expected to grow its Net Income by $2,350 million. If the company was to pay $3 million in dividends, it would be $11,349 million in retained earnings. If you make no investment in capital expenditure and make payments to your bank loan, the loan would come down to $57,660 million. If the company does not reinvest, it will be at a 50% chance of a problem occurring, which can cause more losses. Just as they did in 2004, not only did it cost $2.6 million to fix the problem but also the company had to close down for 2 weeks, hence the drop in sales for 2004. My recommendation to Alliance Concrete would be to pay off the $7,000 million obligation to the bank which is owed. This would be suggested so you do not default on a loan. It would also put you at the borrowing limit as well. If the company does default on the loan, it will not be a good look for the company. Stock prices and confidence in the company will drop, as people will think that the company cannot pay its bill. After paying off the debt to the bank, I would suggest to allocate the rest of the money towards capital expenditure. It will be necessary for the company to upgrade at least some of the equipment to lower the possibility of something going bad. It would be a total nightmare if the company ran into another problem like the one they faced in 2004, and it may lead to bankruptcy. They may not be able to recover because their debt would go through the roof. That being said, I would skip on the dividend payments and insure that the following year there will be a bigger payment to the stockholder, if everything goes well. The investment into the company would make the company operate better and may even generate more revenue. If I was to renegotiate with the bank, I would put forward the projection of growth. I would highlight the increase in sales and revenue along with showing the effort to pay down the banks loans. I would put forward the current and quick ratio, showing that we have enough money to liquidate the assets to cover our debt in worst case scenario. The company can argue that, evenÃ though the real estate market is slowing down, the company is still showing growth, which is a good sign. If Alliance Concrete was to skip on dividend payments the argument that can be put forth would be that the company is growing and shows signs of great improvement, if we put money into it now. Also that, investment now in the company could mean even more dividend payments in the future. We could also argue that it needs to be skipped because the company needs to put back money into itself because we need to get repairs done. If we pay dividends now, it may not be the best for the company, because we will not be able to get the repairs done that are needed and will cost us more to fix and recover from that problem. After carefully looking at all aspects and possible situations I would suggest that the company skip on the dividends for this year, and invest its money back into the company along with paying of some of the debt. This will be beneficial for all. It will make the company grow all with paying of its loans. The stockholders can be assured that the company is growing and that there will be better dividend payments in the future.
Friday, January 10, 2020
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES Edward Spooner The University Of New South Wales, Australia. Keywords: Electric machines, dc motor, electromagnetic induction, Faraday's Law, commutator. Contents U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LS TE S R S 1. Introduction 2. Magnetism and Electromagnetic principles 2. 1. Permanent Magnets 2. 2. Magnetic Field around Conductors 2. 3. Magnetic Field around a Coil 2. 4. Electromagnets 2. 5. Magnetic Strength of Electromagnets 2. 6. Electromagnetic Induction 3. Current Carrying Wires and Coils 3. . Force on a Wire in a Magnetic Field 3. 2. Force and Torque on a Coil in a Magnetic Field 4. Basic Motor Principles 4. 1. The Commutator and Motor Action 4. 2. Simplified Version of the dc Motor 4. 3. Sizes of Machines (related to Torque) 4. 4. Construction of Motors 4. 5. The Stator of a dc Machine 4. 6. Rotor 4. 7. The Commutator 4. 8. Electromotive Force (EMF) in d c Machines 5. Machine equations and circuits 5. 1. Basic Equivalent Circuit of a dc Motor. 5. 2. Direct current Motor Operation & Torque generation 5. 3 DC Machine Torque Equations 5. 4. DC Machine Equations and Speed Regulation . 5. Machine Power and Losses 6. Types of dc Machine 6. 1. Permanent Magnet 6. 2 Shunt Wound 6. 3 Separately Excited 6. 4. Series Connected 6. 5. Compound Connected Motor 7. Stepper Motors 7. 1. General 7. 2. Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors 7. 3. Reluctance Stepper Motors 7. 4. Torque Ã¢â¬â Step Rate 8. Conclusions Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketch Summary This chapter gives a background to the principles behind the operation of dc motors and stepper motors.Permanent magnet, shunt, separately excited, series and compound wound dc motor connections are described. A description of the equations behind the basic behavior of these machines is given and the torque vs speed and speed vs armature (voltage and current) characteristics are illustrated, which gives a background to the control of these motors. U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LS TE S R S 1. Introduction Electrical machinery has been in existence for many years. The applications of electrical machines have expanded rapidly since their first use many years ago.At the present time, applications continue to increase at a rapid rate. The use of electrical motors has increased for home appliances and industrial and commercial applications for driving machines and sophisticated equipment. Many machines and automated industrial equipment require precise control. Direct current motors are ideal for applications where speed and torque control are required. Direct current motor design and complexity has changed from early times where dc machines were used primarily for traction applications.Direct current motors are used for vario us applications ranging from steel rolling mills to tiny robotic systems. Motor control methods have now become more critical to the efficient and effective operation of machines and equipment. Such innovations as servo control systems and industrial robots have led to new developments in motor design. Our complex system of transportation has also had an impact on the use of electrical machines. Automobiles and other means of ground transportation use electrical motors for starting and generators for their battery-charging systems.Recently there have been considerable developments in electric vehicles and also in hybrid electric vehicles which use a combination of a dc motor and an internal combustion engine for efficient operation. In this chapter machines driven by dc electrical supplies are considered. Since the operation of this type of machine is based upon the flow of current in conductors and their interaction with magnetic fields, common principles that underlie the behavior of dc machines will be examined first. 2. Magnetism and Electromagnetic PrinciplesMagnetism and electromagnetic principles are the basis of operation of rotating electrical machines and power systems. For this reason, a review of basic magnetic and electromagnetic principles will be given. Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner 2. 1. Permanent Magnets Permanent magnets are generally made of iron, cobalt, nickel or other Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢ magnetic materials, usually in an alloy combination. The ends of a magnet are called north and south poles.The north pole of a magnet will attract the south pole of another permanent magnet. A north pole repels another north pole and a south pole repels another south pole. The two laws of magnetism are: 1) Unlike poles attract (see Figure 1); 2) Like poles repel (see Figure 2). U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LS TE S R S The magnetic field patterns when two permanent magnets are placed end to end are shown in Figures 1 and 2. When the magnets are farther apart, a smaller force of attraction or repulsion exists. A magnetic field, made up of lines of force or magnetic flux, is set up around any magnetic material.These magnetic flux lines are invisible but have a definite direction from the magnetÃ¢â¬â¢s north to south pole along the outside of the magnet. When magnetic flux lines are close together, the magnetic field is stronger than when further apart. These basic principles of magnetism are extremely important for the operation of electrical machines. Figure 1: Unlike poles attract Figure 2: Like poles repel 2. 2. Magnetic Field around Conductors Current-carrying conductors, such as those in electrical machines, produce a magnetic field. It is possible to show the presence of a magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor.A compass may be used to show that magnetic flux lines around a conductor are circ ular in shape. Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner A method of remembering the direction of magnetic flux around a conductor is the right-hand Ã¢â¬Å"cork-screwÃ¢â¬ rule. If a conductor is held in the right hand as shown in Figure 3, with the thumb pointing in the direction of current flow from positive to negative, the fingers then encircle the conductor, pointing in the direction of the magnetic flux lines. U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LSTE S R S Figure 3: Right-hand rule The circular magnetic field is stronger near the conductor and becomes weaker at a greater distance. A cross-sectional end view of a conductor with current flowing toward the observer is shown in Figure 4. Current flow towards the observer is shown by a circle with a dot in the centre. Notice that the direction of the magnetic flux lines is counter-clockwise, as verified by using the right-ha nd rule. Figure 4: Current out of the page When the direction of current flow through a conductor is reversed, the direction of the magnetic lines of force is also reversed.The cross-sectional end view of a conductor in Figure 5 shows current flow in a direction away from the observer. Notice that the direction of the magnetic lines of force is now clockwise. Figure 5: Current into the page Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner When two conductors are placed parallel to each other, and the direction of current through both of them is the same, the magnetic field lines amalgamate to become one and the two conductors attracted together. See Figure 6. Figure 6: Two parallel conductors U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EOH AP LS TE S R S The presence of magnetic lines of force around a current-carrying conductor can be observed by using a compass. When a compass is moved around the o utside of a conductor, its needle will align itself tangentially to the lines of force as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Field's effect on a compass When current flow is in the opposite direction, the compass polarity reverses but remains tangential to the conductor. 2. 3. Magnetic Field around a Coil The magnetic field around one loop of wire is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8: Loop of wire Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol.III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LS TE S R S Magnetic flux lines extend around the conductor as shown when current passes through the loop. Inside the loop, the magnetic flux is in one direction. When many loops are joined together to form a coil as shown in the Figure 9, the magnetic flux lines surround the coil as shown in Figure 10. The field produced by a coil is much stronger than the field of one loop of wire. The field produced by a coil is simil ar in shape to the field around a bar magnet. A coil carrying current, often with an iron or steel core inside it is called an electromagnet.The purpose of a core is to provide a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, thus increasing the flux that will be present in the coil for a given number of turns and current through the coil. Figure 9: Coil formed by loops Figure 10: Cross-sectional view of the above coil 2. 4. Electromagnets Electromagnets are produced when current flows through a coil of wire as shown below. Almost all electrical machines have electromagnetic coils. The north pole of a coil of wire is the end where the lines of force exit, while the south polarity is the end where the lines of force enter the coil.To find the north pole of a coil, use the right-hand rule for polarity, as shown in Figure 11. Grasp the coil with the right hand. Point the fingers in the direction of current flow through the coil, and the thumb will point to the north polarity of the coil. When the polarity of the voltage source is reversed, the magnetic poles of the coil reverse. Figure 11: Finding the north pole of an electromagnet Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner The poles of an electromagnet can be checked by placing a compass near a pole of the electromagnet.The north-seeking pole of the compass will point toward the north pole of the coil. 2. 5. Magnetic Strength of Electromagnets The magnetic strength of an electromagnet depends on three factors: (1) the amount of current passing through the coil, (2) the number of turns of wire, and (3) the type of core material. The number of magnetic lines of force is increased by increasing the current, by increasing the number of turns of wire, by decreasing any air gap in the path of the magnetic flux, or by using a more desirable type of core material. . 6. Electromagnetic Induction U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C E O H AP LS TE S R S The principle of electromagnetic induction is one of the most important discoveries in the development of modern electrical technology. Electromagnetic induction is the induction of electric voltage in an electrical circuit caused by a change in the magnetic field coupled to the circuit. When electrical conductors, such as alternator windings, are moved within a magnetic field, an electrical voltage is developed in the conductors.The electrical voltage produced in this way is called an induced voltage. A simplified illustration showing how induced voltage is developed is shown in Figure 12. Michael Faraday developed this principle in the early nineteenth century. Figure 12: Faraday's Law If a conductor is placed within the magnetic field of a horseshoe magnet so that the left side of the magnet has a north pole (N) and the right side has a south pole (S), magnetic lines of force travel from the north pole of the magnet to the south pole.The ends of the conductor i n Figure12 are connected to a volt meter to measure the induced voltage. The meter can move either to the left or to the right to indicate the direction and magnitude of induced voltage. When the conductor is moved, the amount of magnetic flux contained within the electrical circuit (which includes the wire and the connections to the meter and the meter itself) changes. This change induces voltage through the conductor. Electromagnetic induction takes place whenever there is a change in the amount of flux coupled by a circuit.In this case the motion of the conductor in the up direction causes more magnetic flux to be contained within the circuit and the meter Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ã¢â¬â Vol. III Ã¢â¬â Direct Current Machines Ã¢â¬â Edward Spooner needle moves in one direction. Motion of the conductor in the down direction causes less magnetic flux to be coupled by the circuit and the meter needle moves in the opposite directi on. The principle demonstrated here is the basis for large-scale electrical power generation.In order for an induced current to be developed, the conductor must be in a complete path or closed circuit, the induced voltage will then cause a current to flow in the circuit. 3. Current Carrying Wires and Coils The basic requirement of any electrical machine, whether ac or dc, is a method of producing torque. This section explores how two magnetic fields in a machine interact to produce a force which produces a torque in a rotating machine. U SA NE M SC PL O EÃ¢â¬â C EO H AP LS TE S R S Ã¢â¬â TO ACCESS ALL THE 34 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER, Visit: http://www. eolss. net/Eolss-sampleAllChapter. spx Bibliography Clayton, Albert E. , Hancock N. N.  Ã¢â¬Å"The performance and design of direct current machines. Ã¢â¬ Pitman Edwards J. D. (1991) Ã¢â¬Å"Electrical machines and drives : an introduction to principles and characteristics. Ã¢â¬ Basingstoke : Macmillan Fitzgerald A. E. , Kinglsey C. Jr. , (1961) Ã¢â¬Å"Electric MachineryÃ¢â¬ 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill. [Comprehensive text on electric machines. ] Guru B. S. , Hiziroglu H. R. , (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"Electric Machinery and TransformersÃ¢â¬ 3rd Edition, New York, Oxford University Press. [Good general text on electrical engineering including machines. Say M. G. (1983). Alternating Current Machines, 5th Edition, London: Pitman. [This covers the more advanced theory of electrical machines] Biographical Sketch E. D. Spooner graduated from the University New South Wales, Australia, and obtained his ME in 1965. He is currently a project leader for AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Renewable Energy Systems testing Laboratory and Lecturer in Electrical Engineering. His research has covered power electronics and drives and is currently focused in renewable energy systems. Ã ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)